M. Azadifar, M. Rubinstein, Q. Li, F. Rachidi, and V. Rakov, “A New Engineering Model of Lightning M Component That Reproduces Its Electric Field Waveforms at Both Close and Far Distances,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres, vol. 124, no. 24, pp. 14008–14023, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD030796
Abstract: We present a new engineering model for the M component mode of charge transfer to ground that can predict the observed electric field signatures associated with this process at various distances, including (a) the microsecond-scale pulse thought to be due to the junction of in-cloud leaders and the grounded, current-carrying channel and (b) the ensuing slow, millisecond-scale pulse due to the M component proper occurring below the junction point.